Knee replacement surgery

If we look around, we see every other elderly person complaining of painful knee joint hindering their everyday activities. Out of 1000 people, 37 suffer from osteoarthritis. We can't deny that it's quite a number. Out of these 37, many can't (cannot) even perform basic everyday activities. To such people, knee replacement surgery can be a solution. Knee replacement surgery, sometimes called knee arthroplasty, is a safe treatment to fix a damaged or dysfunctional knee joint in which a damaged part of the joint is replaced with a prosthetic one. It provides long-term benefits so that you may do daily tasks more easily. Knee replacement will aid in reducing discomfort, enhancing range of motion, and assisting with everyday tasks. The average cost of knee replacement surgery (Knee replacement surgery cost) in Pakistan is between 400,000 to 600,000. RIMS Trauma Hospital is offering this life-changing technique accessible to all social classes, not just the wealthy, by providing high-quality, safe operations in an exquisite setting at an affordable price.

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What are the causes of knee pain?

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There could be numerous causes of knee pain; the most prevalent ones include osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis, and post-traumatic arthritis.

Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent cause of knee pain. It is characterized by the gradual breakdown of the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones in a joint. The supple tissue called cartilage functions as a shock absorbent and permits easy joint mobility. Deterioration of cartilage can cause discomfort, edema, stiffness, and reduced joint motion.

Rheumatoid arthritis: Rheumatoid arthritis, also called autoimmune inflammatory arthritis, affects the joints, causing the membrane around the knee joint to become thick and inflamed. Chronic inflammation damages the cartilage, causing pain, soreness, and stiffness.

Post-traumatic arthritis: This type of arthritis develops due to trauma to the knee joint. This injury can damage the joint’s structures, leading to degeneration and the eventual development of arthritis.

Who needs knee replacement surgery?

A knee replacement procedure is performed when the knee joint’s articular surfaces (sliding surfaces) get damaged or worn out. It is because instead of slipping over one another, these joints collide and scrape against each other, causing damage. This could cause severe pain and difficulty in moving and performing various activities. Patients who are recommended total knee replacement surgeries are often those who have been experiencing severe persistent pain and swelling in their knees, even while resting or sleeping. Additionally, it is advised for individuals who fail to respond to medications and physical therapy.

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Types of knee replacement surgery

There are several types of knee replacement surgeries. Here, we’ll discuss two main types.

    1. Total knee replacement
    2. Partial knee replacement

Total Knee Replacement (TKR): This is the most common type of knee replacement surgery. A total knee replacement (TKR) replaces the whole knee joint with prosthetic parts, either plastic or metal. Patients with chronic arthritis or severe knee joint degeneration are frequently advised to undergo TKR.

Partial Knee Replacement (PKR): In this procedure, only the degenerated part of the knee joint is replaced with prostheses. In contrast to TKR, it has the benefit of a smaller incision, less bone removal, and quicker recovery. However, it doesn’t survive as long as a Total knee replacement.

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What are the pre-operative requirements of Knee replacement surgery?

You will be asked to do several standard tests before surgery, including a CBC to check your total blood count, LFTs to check your liver function, RTFS to check your kidney function, and PT/INR to rule out any issues with blood clotting. Besides that, the surgeon also advises an ECG to check your heart activity. Depending on your existing health problems, you could also be requested to do further tests. You need to undergo these tests to get ready for surgery. The medical professionals will also request your complete medical history and a list of drugs(medication) you may be taking. Additionally, you will get guidelines and details on coughing exercises and deep breathing, cleaning the surgical region, and taking a shower before the procedure. You won't be allowed to eat or drink anything the morning before the operation.

Surgical procedure: How’s it done?

The surgical procedure is conducted under general anesthesia. It takes about 1-2 hours to complete. During the procedure, the surgeon makes an incision over the knee, and the diseased bone and cartilage will be removed. It will then be replaced with metal shells and plastic pieces. These artificial components of a total knee replacement are called the prostheses.

Post-operative procedures

You will spend a brief period recovering after surgery while tracking (monitoring) your anesthesia recovery. To help you manage your discomfort, you will receive medication. When you are completely aware, liquids will be allowed, and you will gradually transition to a soft diet. Following surgery, you will be urged (encouraged) to sit up and move with support to prevent blood clots from forming.

Special instructions to follow after surgery

Recovering after knee surgery is an important time phase that requires adequate care. You should show commitment to your surgeon’s instruction for best results. Some of the guidelines are as follows.

  1. You’ll be told to keep the operated leg straight on the bed without bending it.
  2. You must perform preoperatively instructed deep breathing and coughing exercises at least five times an hour, ideally more often.
  3. Continuously change position in bed to avoid bed sores.
  4. You will be instructed to follow a balanced diet and frequently take an iron supplement to encourage healthy tissue healing and regain muscular strength.
  5. After the procedure, you can walk normally after 1–2 days. You’ll be required to walk first with assistance.
  6. Stay off the ground (your feet) as much as possible to avoid falls following surgery
  7. Don’t bend or lift heavy things after the first few weeks following surgery.

Furthermore, the physiotherapy staff at the hospital will instruct you in completing easy exercises to increase knee range of motion and build muscle. The physical therapist will create A daily workout regimen for you at home.

What are the risks associated with knee replacement surgery

Nevertheless, knee replacement surgery has fewer side effects. Complications might include

  • Infection
  • Deep venous thrombosis
  • Nerve damage
  • Pain and stiffness

Call your doctor immediately if you have any of the following symptoms.

  • Aggravated pain in your calf
  • Tenderness or redness above or below your knee
  • Increased swelling in your calf, ankle, or foot.

Our expert team

At Rims Trauma, we provide a wide choice of knee replacement options suited to each patient’s specific need. Our team of talented orthopedic surgeons and healthcare specialists is committed to providing top-notch care since we (As we) are aware of the significant impact that knee problems may have on your everyday life. Trust us to help you regain your mobility and lead a life free from knee pain.